Building construction is not an easy task. Numerous finance, resources and efforts are involved based on the size of the project. However, it’s exciting if you understand the steps involved before and through building construction. Any project which is funded by authorities/client/stakeholders are decided based upon motive of the project and availability of finance etc. Soon after getting the green signal on the proposal, project is put to planning stage following with construction stage. building construction
Let us discuss more on those 2 stages of building construction.
Stages of building construction
Stage 1 – Planning
Land acquisition refers to the process of acquiring land for various purposes, such as infrastructure development, urbanization, agriculture, industrialization, or conservation. This process involves either the government or private entities purchasing or acquiring land from individuals or communities who are the legal owners.building constructionbuilding constructionbuilding construction
Land acquisition can be carried out through various methods, including negotiation, purchase, voluntary sale, lease, or, in some cases, through compulsory acquisition or eminent domain, where the government has the power to acquire private land for public use.
The reasons for land acquisition vary depending on the specific needs of the acquiring entity. Governments may acquire land for public infrastructure projects such as highways, airports, railways, or schools. Private companies may acquire land for commercial or industrial development. Land can also be acquired for conservation purposes to protect natural habitats or endangered species.
The process of land acquisition often involves evaluating the value of the land, conducting surveys, obtaining environmental clearances, and addressing any legal or regulatory issues. In many cases, compensation is provided to the landowners for the value of their land and any improvements made on it.
However, land acquisition can be a complex and contentious process, especially when it involves displacement of local communities or indigenous populations. Disputes may arise over the fair valuation of land, compensation amounts, or the social and environmental consequences of the acquisition.
To mitigate these challenges, governments and organizations may engage in prior consultations, environmental impact assessments, and compensation agreements to ensure that the rights and interests of affected communities are protected. Transparency and stakeholder engagement are critical to addressing concerns and ensuring a fair and equitable land acquisition process.
After buying land, seek for architectural assistance in order to design the building according the local building bye-laws. Provide the requirement like facilities, budget etc. Designing of structure is also required after architectural designs. It involves substructure and superstructure design of concrete and steel reinforcement etc.
Estimation and costing
It is always required to have brief details on resource expenses like material, machinery and manpower required to complete the project. After finalizing design, the details are provided to estimators to prepare abstract of cost for financial requirements like budget allocation by the authority.
Authority approvals and permissions
When the project is ready to be executed, some permits and approvals are required to be taken from local municipality by submitting an application and some documents like land documents, land survey reports, soil reports, architectural and structural designs etc. as enclosures. These documents may differ state/country vise.
Hire a Contractor
Hiring of a contractor is not easy as it seems to be. Price should not always be given priority. When it comes to quality and project timeline, extra care should be taken while going with any contractor. Pre-qualifications must be done before releasing bids to contractors. Similarly, bids should be checked in terms of pricing, specifications, exceptions/deviations and project schedule etc. Sign the contract after scrutinizing condition of contract.
Stage 2 – Construction
After awarding the project, contractor’s site mobilization starts. It involves the mobilization of resources and site facilities like portable offices, stores, etc.
Site Preparation, leveling and marking
This depends on the land acquired. The land covered with bushes must be cleared before marking. undulated land must be leveled prior to any demarcation works. Demarcation based on survey reports and layout coordinates is done to mark project boundaries and building areas.
Earthwork in excavation, soil improvement and blinding concrete
Excavation for substructure is done by using earth-moving equipment (varies based on nature of soil). Soil improvement is done by imported fill material. Layer of blinding concrete is done after soil improvement to level the base before installation of steel rebar.
Casting of substructure
Substructure comprises of foundations, beams and neck columns. The part of the building always invisible as it is below ground. It serves the purpose of transferring load coming from superstructure(like live and dead loads) to ground. Casting of substructure is done after placing of rebar following with waterproofing and back filling works to reach plinth level.
Casting of superstructure
This part of the building above ground level consists of columns, roof beams, roof slabs, lintel beams, stair case, lift walls etc.
Masonry works including electrical and plumbing works
After completing frame structure, masonry work starts. It can be done with burnt clay bricks, concrete blocks or AAC blocks with the help of cement sand mortar or adhesive glue(used for AAC blocks). Door/window opening are provided along with provision of lintels and sills. Masonry walls are chased for electrical and plumbing lines. It is always advised that these lines are concealed and should not be visible after finishing works.
Finishing works are most important in any building as it is the view changing stage of the building. Minor to medium deficiencies in structural and masonry works can be reformed or omitted in finishing works. Finishing works involves plastering, painting, floor and wall tiles etc.
Joinery and fixture fittings
This stage involves the works related to fittings of door/windows, furniture, sanitary wares and electrical fittings.
Roof Waterproofing and thermal insulation
Waterproofing on top roof is done in order to protect the leakage from slab. Modern technique suggest to use waterproofing membrane. Insulation boards are also provided before laying of waterproofing membrane for thermal insulation.
These are main steps covered under building construction. Other than that, some external works like landscaping works, laying of approach roads, laying of sewer and storm lines are also done based on requirement of client.
Read more: Method Statement for Site Clearance Works